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Measuring Radiation

There are four different terms commonly used to describe the radiation and also four different but interrelated units for measuring radioactivity, exposure, absorbed dose, and dose equivalent.

·    Radioactivity refers to the amount of ionizing radiation released by a material. Whether it emits alpha or beta particles, gamma rays, x-rays, or neutrons, a quantity of radioactive material is expressed in terms of its radioactivity (or simply its activity), which represents how many atoms in the material decay in a given time period. The units of measure for radioactivity are the curie (Ci) and becquerel (Bq).

·    Exposure describes the amount of radiation traveling through the air. Many radiation monitors measure exposure. The units for exposure are the roentgen (R) and coulomb/kilogram (C/kg).

·    Absorbed dose describes the amount of radiation absorbed by an object or person (that is, the amount of energy that radioactive sources deposit in materials through which they pass). The units for absorbed dose are the radiation absorbed dose (rad) and gray (Gy).

·    Dose equivalent (or effective dose) combines the amount of radiation absorbed and the medical effects of that type of radiation. For beta and gamma radiation, the dose equivalent is the same as the absorbed dose. By contrast, the dose equivalent is larger than the absorbed dose for alpha and neutron radiation, because these types of radiation are more damaging to the human body. Units for dose equivalent are the roentgen equivalent man (rem) and sievert (Sv), and biological dose equivalents are commonly measured in 1/1000th of a rem (known as a millirem or mrem).

For practical purposes, 1 R (exposure) = 1 rad (absorbed dose) = 1 rem or 1000 mrem (dose equivalent).

Note that a measure given in Ci tells the radioactivity of a substance, while a measure in rem (or mrem) tells the amount of energy that a radioactive source deposits in living tissue.

Radiation Measurements

 

Radioactivity

Absorbed Dose

Dose Equivalent

Exposure

Common Units

Curie (Ci)

Rad

Rem

Roentgen (R)

SI Units

Becquerel (Bq)

Gray (Gy)

Sievert (Sv)

coulomb/kilogram (C/kg)

 

Following is a list of prefixes and their meanings that are often used in conjunction with SI units:

Multiple

Prefix

Symbol

1012

tera

T

109

giga

G

106

mega

M

103

kilo

k

10-2

centi

c

10-3

milli

m

10-6

micro

µ

10-9

nano

n

Negative and positive power details

Conversion Equivalence

1 curie = 3.7 x 1010
disintegrations per second

 

1 becquerel = 
1 disintegration per second

 

1 millicurie (mCi)

=

37 megabecquerels (MBq)

1 rad

=

0.01 gray (Gy)

1 rem

=

0.01 sievert (Sv)

1 roentgen (R)

=

0.000258 coulomb/kilogram (C/kg)

 

1 megabecquerel (MBq)

=

0.027 millicuries (mCi)

1 gray (Gy)

=

100 rad

1 sievert (Sv)

=

100 rem

1 coulomb/kilogram (C/kg)

=

3,880 roentgens

Conversion Factors

To convert from

To

Multiply by

Curies (Ci)

becquerels (Bq)

3.7 x 1010

millicuries (mCi)

megabecquerels (MBq)

37

microcuries (µCi)

megabecquerels (MBq)

0.037

millirads (mrad)

milligrays (mGy)

0.01

millirems (mrem)

microsieverts (µSv)

10

milliroentgens (mR)

microcoulombs/kilogram (µC/kg)

0.258

 

becquerels (Bq)

curies (Ci)

2.7 x 10-11

megabecquerels (MBq)

millicuries (mCi)

0.027

megabecquerels (MBq)

microcuries (µCi)

27

milligrays (mGy)

millirads (mrad)

100

microsieverts (µSv)

millrems (mrem)

0.1

microcoulombs/kilogram (µC/kg)

milliroentgens (mR)

3.88

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